Publications
The manuscripts listed on this page available to the academic community for use in teaching and research. The copyrights associated with each paper remain with the appropriate parties.
McAndrews C, Okuyama K, Litt JS 2017 "The Reach of Bicycling in Rural, Small, and Low-density Places." Transportation Research Record. (Forthcoming).

Abstract

Lessons derived from the urban experience of bicycling may not be broadly supportive of bicycling in what we call rural, small, and low-density (RSLD) places because of differences in built environment, social, and political contexts. In this study we investigated the hypothesis that bicycling is primarily an urban activity. We used binary logistic regression to compare the frequency of bicycling and the population characteristics of bicyclists across urban and RSLD places. We used multiple operational definitions of urban-rural continua to examine whether the results are sensitive to how RSLD places are defined. The data for bicycling are from the 2009 National Household Travel Survey (NHTS), which was designed to represent the population of the U.S. We found that bicycling is primarily — but not exclusively — an urban activity. Moreover, women and youth were more likely to bicycle in RSLD places compared to urban places. These findings suggest that an urban perspective on bicycling could limit the success of initiatives aiming to increase the diversity of populations that bicycle. Developing a base of empirical knowledge of bicycling in RSLD places is a necessary step toward developing more inclusive and effective multimodal transportation strategies.
McAndrews C, Beyer K, Guse CE, Layde P. 2017. "Are Rural Places Less Safe for Motorists? Definitions of Urban and Rural to Understand Road Safety Disparities." Injury Prevention, in press.

Abstract

The objectives of the study are to understand road safety within the context of regional development processes and to assess how urban-rural categories represent differences in motor vehicle occupant fatality risk. We analysed 2015 motor vehicle occupant deaths in Wisconsin from 2010 to 2014, using three definitions of urban-rural continua and negative binomial regression to adjust for population density, travel exposure and the proportion of teen residents. Rural-Urban Commuting Area codes, Beale codes and the Census definition of urban and rural places do not explain differences in urban and rural transportation fatality rates when controlling for population density. Although it is widely believed that rural places are uniquely dangerous for motorised travel, this understanding may be an artefact of inaccurate constructs. Instead, population density is a more helpful way to represent transportation hazards across different types of settlement patterns, including commuter suburbs and exurbs.
McAndrews C, Beyer K, Guse C, Layde P. 2017. "Linking Transportation and Population Health to Reduce Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Transportation Injury: Implications for Practice and Policy." International Journal of Sustainable Transportation, 11(3):197-205.

Abstract

In both developing and advanced economies, it is commonly believed that lower income and minority populations are disproportionately at risk of being injured or killed in a motor vehicle crash, especially as pedestrians. However, this risk is rarely quantified with information about exposure. We argue that a combined transportation-population health framework is one way to quantify, and therefore prioritize, equity considerations in transportation safety decision-making. We illustrate this approach with an analysis that compares age-adjusted fatal and nonfatal injury rates per 100 million person-trips by race/ethnicity and sex for motor vehicle occupants, bicyclists, and pedestrians. We found that, per trip, whites are equally safe as pedestrians and motor vehicle occupants, whereas other racial and ethnic groups for whom we have data are less safe when they walk. In addition, black/African-American female motor vehicle occupants and pedestrians have higher inpatient injury risk than female travelers of other races and ethnicities (for whom we had sufficient data). Such differences in transportation injury risk by race and ethnicity warrant deeper analysis to understand the underlying reasons, such as whether certain groups of travelers are exposed to qualitatively different hazards when they travel. We discuss frameworks for including information about injury disparities in decision-making.
Marshall WE, McAndrews C. 2017. "Understanding Livable Streets in the Context of the Arterials that Surround Them." Transportation Research Record, 2605:1-17.

Abstract

Not long after the advent of cars, a conflict between traffic and residential livability arose. The typical response pushed traffic off residential streets and onto nearby major roads. This line of thinking evolved into a hierarchical approach to the street networks and arterial roads designed to carry the majority of vehicle traffic. With many researchers identifying traffic on residential streets to be an underlying issue behind poor livability, this solution makes sense. However, is the relationship between residential livability and traffic moderated by the character of the nearby arterial road? By use of a residential study in Denver, Colorado, 10 arterials were partitioned along two dimensions: high and low traffic and high and low design quality. Comparable residential roads within the surrounding neighborhoods were selected to fit descriptions of heavy, moderate, and light traffic, and 723 residents were surveyed. The results suggest that the surrounding street network—in particular, the character of the nearby arterial road—influences the livability of residential areas on the adjacent streets according to a number of livability measures. When income was controlled for, both high levels of traffic and low levels of urban design on the arterial were found to detract from livability in the surrounding neighborhoods, sometimes more so than the residential street traffic itself. This finding should not be taken as a call to shift traffic onto residential streets. Rather, planners and engineers need to take a broader perspective and consider the whole network to understand livability. Livable residential streets can be only part of the solution; more livable arterials are also needed.
McAndrews C, Layde P, Beyer K, Guse CE. 2016. "How Do the Definitions of Urban and Rural Matter for Transportation Safety? Re-interpreting Transportation Fatalities as an Outcome of Regional Development Processes." Accident Analysis and Prevention, 97: 231-241.

Abstract

Urban and rural places are integrated through economic ties and population flows. Despite their inte-gration, most studies of road safety dichotomize urban and rural places, and studies have consistentlydemonstrated that rural places are more dangerous for motorists than urban places. Our study investi-gates whether these findings are sensitive to the definition of urban and rural. We use three differentdefinitions of urban-rural continua to quantify and compare motor vehicle occupant fatality rates perperson-trip and person-mile for the state of Wisconsin. The three urban-rural continua are defined by:(1) popular impressions of urban, suburban, and rural places using a system from regional economics; (2)population density; and (3) the intensity of commute flows to core urbanized areas. In this analysis, thethree definitions captured different people and places within each continuum level, highlighting ruralheterogeneity. Despite this heterogeneity, the three definitions resulted in similar fatality rate gradients,suggesting a potentially latent "rural" characteristic. We then used field observations of urban-rural tran-sects to refine the definitions. When accounting for the presence of higher-density towns and villagesin rural places, we found that low-density urban places such as suburbs and exurbs have fatality ratesmore similar to those in rural places. These findings support the need to understand road safety withinthe context of regional development processes instead of urban-rural categories.
Litt JS, McAndrews C. 2016. "Cross-Site Evaluation of the Kaiser Permanente Walk and Wheel Initiative."

Abstract

The Kaiser Permanente Colorado Walk and Wheel grant program aimed to increase walking and bicycling for recreation, transportation, and everyday activities by partnering with local public works, planning, and parks departments. The goal of these partnerships was to prompt systemic changes in policies and built environments to be broadly supportive of increasing physical activity among community members. The evaluation used mixed methods to collect and analyze information about the funded sites and their activities. We conducted in-depth interviews with grantees about their active transportation partnerships, existing institutions that support active living, and opportunities for capacity building in active transportation. In addition, we developed an online engagement tool to gather information about community values and walking and bicycling behaviors and attitudes from event participants, residents, and workers in each funded site. With respect to the broader impact of the grant program, the Walk and Wheel investment was unique because it enabled grantees working primarily in the transportation sector to engage with public health motivations for walking and bicycling. In this cross-site evaluation we found that the public health framing of the grant program was indeed important for its success in certain communities where the public health message motivated policy actors to support transportation system change. However, in most cases, the day-to-day work of public health and transportation practitioners existed side by side and did not form a cohesive approach. For example, public health practitioners are rarely part of transportation decision-making processes. Also, the traditional expertise of transportation departments does not include health behavior. When the transportation sector does engage with walking and bicycling, it emphasizes the supply of infrastructure, whereas the use of infrastructure is also important for achieving public health goals. Walk and Wheel presents a critical opportunity to develop a more integrated approach to achieve shared goals of physical activity and multi-modal transportation, and to test its implementation. Specifically, an integrated public health-transportation understanding of physical activity is needed to: (1) reconcile tensions between recreational and utilitarian travel investments and designs; (2) identify and engage with populations that are less physically active or less connected to bicycle and pedestrian advocacy networks; and (3) develop a model of physical activity that captures elements of both health behavior and travel behavior in the context of daily living.
McAndrews C, Marcus J. 2015. "The politics of collective public participation in transportation decision-making." Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, 78:537-550.

Abstract

Citizen involvement in transportation planning is typically modeled on a liberal democracy in which individuals express their preferences about a project. In this paper we present an analysis based on interviews with stakeholders whose involvement was grounded in a complementary model of public participation, one in which an organized community used collective action (instead of only individual expression), and worked both within and outside of the formal public involvement process to influence the design of an arterial highway in their neighborhood. This case reflects a commonplace context for public participation: residents opposing a highway expansion and the negative effects of heavy traffic in neighborhoods. The problem presented in this case is that the process for citizen involvement was not designed to fully utilize the community's collective capacity. Three aspects of collective action-representation, the ability to shape a policy agenda, and methods of engagement-were contested in the public participation process. We argue that these conflicts around collective action in the public participation process exposed its "one-way communication," and enabled a different kind of political process in which neighbors' organizing was powerful and influenced decisions.
McAndrews C, Marcus J. 2014. "Reducing the Negative Effects of Traffic on Communities: Public Engagement, Planners' Engagement, and Policy Change." Planning & Environmental Law, 66(9):6-10.

Abstract

With improved participation requirements and feedback methods, the doors to discussion have opened significantly over the decades to invite participation by those most affected by planning decisions. But the effectiveness of our outreach - and ultimate incorporation of local concerns into our planning - can be limited by the ways in which we define a project or problem and by our own blind spots. In working with an exceptionally organized and engaged community, the authors have identified these missed opportunities and suggest an increased role for planners in ensuring policy makers and decision makers understand local ideas and concerns as not merely opposition, but opportunity.
McAndrews C, Marcus J. 2014. "Community-Based Advocacy at the Intersection of Public Health and Transportation: The Challeges of Addressing Local Health Impacts within a Regional Policy Process." Journal of Planning Education and Research, 34(2):190-202..

Abstract

Integrating public health concerns into transportation policy agendas involves addressing the negative impacts of traffic on neighboring communities. Through interviews, focus groups, and participatory photo-mapping, we studied one community that advocated to improve community health through the design and reconstruction of an arterial road in their neighborhood. The transportation planning process provided an opportunity for neighbors' participation, but it prioritized solving regional transportation problems instead of local impacts. The uneven adoption of public health concerns in this case was related to the constraints of regional planning and governance. Integrating health and transportation issues locally requires action at multiple scales.
Cleaves R, McAndrews C, Green M. 2014. "Residents and Local Groups Organize to Reduce Health Disparities in Westwood," in Asset-Based Community Engagement in Higher Education, John Hamerlinck and Julie Plaut, eds. Minneapolis: Minnesota Campus Compact.

Abstract

This case study describes the organization-building of residents and community-based organizations in Westwood, a neighborhood in Denver, Colorado. Westwood's residents have high rates of overweight and obesity, and limited access to healthy foods and opportunities for exercise compared to residents of most other neighborhoods in Denver. The problem that Westwood's residents address through Asset-Based Community Development (ABCD) is overcoming health disparities. Individuals and organizations in Westwood have worked with a number of organizations, including LiveWell Colorado and the University of Colorado Denver, to accomplish its goals. Through our experience with this university-community partnership we have learned that they are a good starting point, but not an ideal organizational form in the long run. A new organization, Westwood Unidos, has been stronger in balancing decision-making across a larger group and helping create equality across residents, local organizations, staff members of the university, and other non-local organizations.
McAndrews C, Beyer K, Guse CE, Layde P. 2013. "Revisiting Exposure: Fatal and Non-fatal Traffic Injury Risk Across Different Populations of Travelers in Wisconsin 2001-2009." Accident Analysis and Prevention, 60:103-112.

Abstract

Comparing the injury risk of different travel modes requires using a travel-based measure of exposure. In this study we quantify injury risk by travel mode, age, race/ethnicity, sex, and injury severity using three different travel-based exposure measures (person-trips, person-minutes of travel, and person-miles of travel) to learn how these metrics affect the characterization of risk across populations. We used a linked database of hospital and police records to identify non-fatal injuries (2001-2009), the Fatality Analysis Reporting System for fatalities (2001-2009), and the 2001 Wisconsin Add-On to the National Household Travel Survey for exposure measures. In Wisconsin, bicyclists and pedestrians have a moderately higher injury risk compared to motor vehicle occupants (adjusting for demographic factors), but the risk is much higher when exposure is measured in distance. Although the analysis did not control for socio-economic status (a likely confounder) it showed that American Indian and Black travelers in Wisconsin face higher transportation injury risk than White travelers (adjusting for sex and travel mode), across all three measures of exposure. Working with multiple metrics to form comprehensive injury risk profiles such as this one can inform decision making about how to prioritize investments in transportation injury prevention.
McAndrews C. 2013. "Road Safety as a Shared Responsibility and a Public Problem in Swedish Road Safety Policy." Science, Technology and Human Values, 38(6):749-772.

Abstract

Sweden's road safety policy, Vision Zero, seeks to eliminate deaths and serious injuries from traffic crashes, and it recognizes that the bottleneck in improving road safety is displacing mobility as the main priority of the road transportation system. This analysis considers the theory and practice of Vision Zero, first interpreting its proposed changes to responsibility for road safety, and then examining how it has been implemented. The research methods include document analyses, field observations, and interviews with Swedish safety practitioners. This study found that Vision Zero's main innovation is its explicit call for experts to have causal responsibility for injuries. Moreover, Vision Zero expands the responsibility attributed to road users, who are called on to voice demand for safety improvements to civil servants and elected officials. However, Vision Zero also needed to create institutions through which experts could be accountable for their new causal responsibility, and it needed to support popular organizing around traffic injury prevention. I suggest that a major limitation to increasing the status of road safety as a public problem is that it is generally understood as a private problem and changing this perception through policy requires a more deeply engaged public process.
McAndrews C, Deakin E, Schipper L. 2013. "Including climate change considerations in Latin American urban transport practices and policy agendas." Journal of Environmental Planning and Management, 60:103-112.

Abstract

In this research we sought to understand how actors in urban transportation adopt climate change considerations into their work, including the techniques they use to address it, such as planning, design, analysis and advocacy in project planning and implementation. Through interviews with transportation practitioners at the World Bank, working in Latin America, we found that efforts to include climate change mitigation in the urban transportation policy agenda encountered major challenges such as lack of support for interventions that slow motorisation. In response, these transportation practitioners used relationships, expertise, advocacy and analysis to modify their practices to climate change concerns.
McAndrews C. 2011. "Traffic risk by travel mode in the metropolitan regions of Stockholm and San Francisco: A comparison of safety indicators." Injury Prevention, 17(3):204-207.

Abstract

According to commonly used measures of traffic safety, Sweden has one of the safest road transportation systems in the world, whereas the USA has relatively poor road safety performance. Although national comparisons are useful, they are problematical because they generalise across a diverse mix of travel environments (eg, urban and rural). This study used an array of traffic death rates to determine whether comparable urban regions in Sweden and California--Stockholm and San Francisco--have similar road safety performance for various types of road users. The study found that the Stockholm region is far safer than the San Francisco Bay area for pedestrians and bicyclists, even when comparing the regions' core cities, but may not be any safer for motor vehicle occupants. In addition, comparing traffic safety with traditional measures of exposure such as population and motor vehicle travel produced different results than measures that account for mode-specific exposure.
McAndrews C, Deakin E, Schipper L. 2010. "Climate Change and Urban Transportation in Latin America: An Analysis of Recent Projects." Transportation Research Record, 2191:128-135.

Abstract

Urban transportation investments present an opportunity to mitigate climate change while supporting effective, clean, safe, and equitable transportation. This study reports on the response of a set of urban transportation investments in Latin America to climate change. A sample of recent transportation projects funded by an international bank was analyzed to learn what kinds of infrastructure, plans, and policies were being pursued and to assess whether projects developed specifically to address climate change differed from other projects. Loans and grants supported a mix of infrastructure for transit, bicycles, and pedestrians, as well as institutional strengthening. Although only a few projects explicitly addressed climate change mitigation, their impacts on mode choice and urban development almost surely have had positive effects compared with what would have happened without them. In some cases, however, funding for road construction at the urban fringe may induce outward urban expansion and greater automobile use. Specifically analyzing the carbon consequences of all projects as well as their combined effects in the overall system would provide better ability to track and take credit for carbon mitigation and also could flag potential problem areas.
McAndrews C, Florez J, Deakin E. 2006. "Views of the Street: Using Community Surveys to and Focus Groups to Inform Context-Sensitive Design." Transportation Research Record, 1981:92-99.

Abstract

Urban transportation planners need community involvement to design the urban transportation system for its users and for those who experience its spillovers and externalities, positive and negative. The people in the urban transportation system include travelers, residents of nearby neighborhoods, transit service providers, and others. These groups often overlap. This paper discusses methods and findings from an effort to involve residents in the planning for the redesign and revitalization of San Pablo Avenue, an urban arterial running along the eastern edge of the San Francisco Bay, California. The viewpoints of residents of neighborhoods of Oakland, Emeryville, Berkeley, Albany, Richmond, and El Cerrito, California, the six cities along the southern portion of the avenue, were gathered through resident surveys and focus groups. These residents experience the avenue as travelers and also as its neighbors, whose everyday lives are influenced by activities on the street. Resident surveys and focus groups show that even on a major arterial serving multiple jurisdictions, local residents account for a major share of shopping and personal business along the arterial, and local trips are a major portion of the pedestrian traffic, transit ridership, and auto use in the corridor. Further, residents have intimate knowledge of the way the street functions and malfunctions and can offer useful suggestions for street redesign, operational improvements, land use changes, and related social programs. The paper shows that context-sensitive design needs to respond not only to the physical environment but also to social and economic conditions, including neighborhood concerns and aspirations.
Hansen M, McAndrews C. 2005. "The Challenges of Measuring Performance for the FAA Safety Oversight System." Transportation Research Record, 1937:31-36.

Abstract

FAA regulates the safety of the aviation industry through the safety oversight system, which is a system of rulemaking, standard-setting, certification, accident investigation, rule enforcement, and surveillance activities. Federal programs, including those of FAA, use performance indicators to measure the achievement of program goals. As part of a broader program of developing risk management methodologies, FAA is researching performance indicators that can be used to measure the performance of the safety oversight system. One of its goals is to create performance indicators that can describe the safety oversight system's influence on safety outcomes such as fatalities. Creating performance measures that link activities to safety outcomes is challenging because it is difficult to establish the causation between oversight activities and these safety outcomes. This challenge is not unique to FAA, and external reviewers such as the Government Accountability Office have recommended that other high-reliability sectors, including rail, develop such indicators. In addition to safety outcomes, other aspects of safety oversight system performance can be described with meaningful metrics. The background and motivation for oversight evaluation in the aviation industry and in general are discussed, as well as the challenges, some generic and some unique, of evaluating aviation safety oversight activities. Research is also presented on how safety oversight evaluation is conducted outside aviation.